This section displays the history of instruments used to communicate from a distance from the optical posts at the end of the 18th century to optical fibres. This new exhibition opens with an area dedicated to the history of the telegraph. In the same hall, on a parallel route, the past and the present of the telephone are analysed. These two areas are enriched by the presence of some rare antiques such as the Caselli’s Pantelegraph and the Meucci’s telephones. The network concept is then analysed, a fundamental structure to connect many users. Thanks to the original devices with which Marconi started his experiments on radiotelegraphy, you can study more deeply the theme of wireless reception. Small amateur devices, public state systems and the study of a private radio broadcaster explain the theme of radio broadcasting. This section is completed with the area dedicated to the evolution of television technology. Some faithful reconstructions of the historic television production and reception places will accompany you to Piazza della Comunicazione – Piazza Telecom Italia, "Communication - Telecom Italia Square", the place where all the medias converge and create the modern and revolutionary ICT digital world (Information and Communication Technology).
The telegraph sinks its roots in the laboratories of the beginning of the 19th century. It represents the first practical applications of the studies by the masters of electromagnetism and, thanks to Samuel Morse, becomes widespread, covering a dense network all over the world. In the same period inventors and scientists offered a new and more powerful instrument: the telephone was born, capable of carrying the human voice over ever-increasing distances. Initially considered the natural substitute of the telegraph, it became a means of communication for everybody, changing social habits and recreating new social relationships. In this area objects and reports tell the importance of the technical and social history of these two means of communication showing their origins in times far from the period of global information and communication in which we live.
What was Guglielmo Marconi’s contribution to the birth of the radio? Who are ‘radio hams’ and what was their importance? A hundred years after Marconi’s Nobel (december 1909), this hall shows the development of the radio, from experimental models to modern digital radio receivers. The first area of the hall is dedicated to Marconi and to radiotelegraphy, and displays devices used to exchange messages via radio in Morse code. The second area is dedicated to radio broadcasting and introduces equipment for listening to entertainment programmes broadcast by public and private broadcasters. To help you understand more clearly how the objects work, you can use interactive stations to activate reconstructed Marconi devices and explore the properties of radio waves.
Television is the most studied and discussed means of communication in the history of communication. Experts have pondered, often and above all, on the social repercussions which this very powerful means of communication has had, still has and will have in the future on society. In this area, with the help of unique objects and unedited reports, we tell the technical history of Italian television, revealing the close links between the technologies shown and their social use. At the centre are both the point of view of the user (we television viewers) and that of television programme producers (the broadcasters). Walking through the hall we discover that television was born – at least technologically speaking – many decades prior to when it became known to Italians and that nowadays it is experiencing great and important changes due to the birth of digital television and internet.
It is enough to have a phone in order to communicate at a distance? What happens when the number of users grows? This room presents a network structure developed at the end of the eighteenth century and still used in telecommunication systems.